RMA newsletter Spring 2018

The Resource Modeling Association is an international association of scientists working at the intersection of mathematical modeling, environmental sciences, and natural resource management. We formulate and analyze models to understand and inform the management of renewable and exhaustible resources. We are particularly concerned with the sustainable utilization of renewable resources and their vulnerability to anthropogenic and other disturbances.

Environmental Economics

Technology Boom, Labor Reallocation, and Human Capital Depreciation

We study the long-run effect on productivity of labor reallocation during a technology boom. Using French matched employer-employee data, we examine the large cohort of workers who enter the information and communication technology sector during the late 1990s boom. Despite starting with 5% higher wages, these workers experience lower wage growth and end up with 6% lower wages fifteen years out, relative to similar workers who started in other sectors. The long-run wage discount is concentrated on STEM occupations, consistent with a skill obsolescence mechanism. Other moments of the wage distribution are inconsistent with selectioneffects and negative demand shocks.

Macroeconomics

Strong Demand, Limited Supply, and Rising Prices: The Economics of Pandemic-Era Housing

The Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland regularly surveys a broad cross-section of businesses in the region it serves and convenes business advisory councils in eight of the region’s major metropolitan areas. The information collected through these surveys and conversations points to trends that are not yet apparent in the data and fills gaps in researchers’ understanding of our region’s economy. The information is helpful to Federal Reserve policymakers during their discussions about the nation’s monetary policy. Anecdotes herein have been edited for length and clarity.

Urban and Real Estate Economics

Designing an effective small farmers scheme in France

The 2014 CAP introduced the Small Farmers Scheme (SFS), offering small farms the option of an unconditional annual lump-sum payment per farm replacing the standard first pillar direct payments. This paper assesses the acceptability in France of an extended version of the 2014 SFS for the post-2020 CAP: it includes conditions on farmers' environmental efforts and on salaried employment. The results of a discrete choice experiment conducted at the scale of France with 608 farmers receiving less than 15,000€ in first pillar payments show that an SFS with an environmental certification prerequisite is attractive to French small farmers, notably in the market gardening sector. We provide simula..

Experimental Economics

Designing an effective small farmers scheme in France

The 2014 CAP introduced the Small Farmers Scheme (SFS), offering small farms the option of an unconditional annual lump-sum payment per farm replacing the standard first pillar direct payments. This paper assesses the acceptability in France of an extended version of the 2014 SFS for the post-2020 CAP: it includes conditions on farmers' environmental efforts and on salaried employment. The results of a discrete choice experiment conducted at the scale of France with 608 farmers receiving less than 15,000€ in first pillar payments show that an SFS with an environmental certification prerequisite is attractive to French small farmers, notably in the market gardening sector. We provide simula..

Environmental Economics

Structural Transformation Options of the Saudi Economy Under Constraint of Depressed World Oil Prices

We implement the hybrid (energy-economy) recursive-dynamic multisector IMACLIM model with important adaptations to Saudi macroeconomics. We design two scenarios reflecting both the Saudi Vision 2030 economic development program and Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to greenhouse gas mitigation: Continuity of previous plans to expand energy-intensive activities under maintained energy-pricing policies, versus Transformation by economic diversification away from hydrocarbon-related activities and fiscal and energypricing reforms. We show that, compared to Continuity, Transformation improves activity, employment and public budget outlooks, while considerably abating the energy intensity ..

Energy Economics

Justice and just price in Francisco de Vitoria's Commentary on Summa Theologica II-II q77

Following Thomas Aquinas, Francisco de Vitoria's analysis of justice in exchanges takes place by commenting on the corresponding questions of the Summa Theologica. The identification of the just price with that of common estimation occurs under a sufficient concurrence of sellers and buyers. A high level of concurrence limits the ability to take advantage of the need on the other side of the market. This fact guaranties a full consent of the parties involved in trading. Under conditions of market power or when some authority fixes a legal price, just price should also be taken as a normative ideal.

History and Philosophy of Economics

Method and scope in Joseph A. Schumpeter's economics: a pluralist perspective

This study aims to evaluate the ideas on the scope and method of economics of Joseph Schumpeter who is one of the important economists of the 20th century. The study consists of four sections: In the first section we underline the interesting points of his life to understand the roots, background, or 'vision' of his thought system. In the second section, we will examine his methodological views that he asserted in his first (but translated into English only in 2010) book. Third section will be concerned with his 'analysis of economics' which refers to his critics of Leon Walras's general equilibrium analysis (as static) and his own alternative (dynamics analysis of capitalist economies) abou..

History and Philosophy of Economics

A critical note on the scientific conception of economics: claiming for a methodological pluralism

Opponents of mainstream economics have not yet called attention to the lack of in-depth examination of the general scientific conception of modern economics. However, economic science cannot consistently fulfil the epistemological and ontological requirements of the scientific standards underlying this conception. What can be scientifically recognized as true cannot be answered, neither through the actual ontological structure of the object of observation nor through a methodological demarcation. These limitations necessarily lead to the claim for both a pragmatic and a radical methodological pluralism.

History and Philosophy of Economics

A critical note on the scientific conception of economics: claiming for a methodological pluralism

Opponents of mainstream economics have not yet called attention to the lack of in-depth examination of the general scientific conception of modern economics. However, economic science cannot consistently fulfil the epistemological and ontological requirements of the scientific standards underlying this conception. What can be scientifically recognized as true cannot be answered, neither through the actual ontological structure of the object of observation nor through a methodological demarcation. These limitations necessarily lead to the claim for both a pragmatic and a radical methodological pluralism.

Evolutionary Economics

A critical note on the scientific conception of economics: claiming for a methodological pluralism

Opponents of mainstream economics have not yet called attention to the lack of in-depth examination of the general scientific conception of modern economics. However, economic science cannot consistently fulfil the epistemological and ontological requirements of the scientific standards underlying this conception. What can be scientifically recognized as true cannot be answered, neither through the actual ontological structure of the object of observation nor through a methodological demarcation. These limitations necessarily lead to the claim for both a pragmatic and a radical methodological pluralism.

Post Keynesian Economics

Method and scope in Joseph A. Schumpeter's economics: a pluralist perspective

This study aims to evaluate the ideas on the scope and method of economics of Joseph Schumpeter who is one of the important economists of the 20th century. The study consists of four sections: In the first section we underline the interesting points of his life to understand the roots, background, or 'vision' of his thought system. In the second section, we will examine his methodological views that he asserted in his first (but translated into English only in 2010) book. Third section will be concerned with his 'analysis of economics' which refers to his critics of Leon Walras's general equilibrium analysis (as static) and his own alternative (dynamics analysis of capitalist economies) abou..

Post Keynesian Economics

Visual Convex Time Preferences

The original standard for measuring time preferences was Multiple Price List (MPL), where subjects are asked to choose between an amount of money in the present and a larger amount of money in the future. Convex Time Budget (CTB) was later introduced, allowing subjects to differentially allocate money between present and future. It improved precision of measurement but also increased the complexity of the task. In this paper we introduce the Visual Convex Time Preferences (VCTP), a new measure of time preferences synthesizing simplicity of MPL and precision of CTB. Results from the lab suggest that VCTP is robust and improves precision of time preferences measurement compared to the MPL. Sam..

Experimental Economics

Monetary Policy in a Schumpeterian Growth Model with Two R&D Sectors

We explore the growth and welfare effects of monetary policy in a two-sector Schumpeterian economy with cash-in-advance (CIA) constrained R&D investment in both sectors. We show that a nominal interest rate increase generates two effects on equilibrium labor allocation: a manufacturing-R&D-reallocation effect and a cross-R&D-sector effect. The former reduces economic growth by shifting labor from R&D to production, whereas the latter can enhance it by shifting labor from the less productive R&D sector to the more productive one. Unless the high productivity R&D sector is severely more CIA-constrained than the low productivity one, aggregate R&D overinvestment is sufficient but not necessary ..

Monetary Economics

Monetary Policy in a Schumpeterian Growth Model with Two R&D Sectors

We explore the growth and welfare effects of monetary policy in a two-sector Schumpeterian economy with cash-in-advance (CIA) constrained R&D investment in both sectors. We show that a nominal interest rate increase generates two effects on equilibrium labor allocation: a manufacturing-R&D-reallocation effect and a cross-R&D-sector effect. The former reduces economic growth by shifting labor from R&D to production, whereas the latter can enhance it by shifting labor from the less productive R&D sector to the more productive one. Unless the high productivity R&D sector is severely more CIA-constrained than the low productivity one, aggregate R&D overinvestment is sufficient but not necessary ..

Macroeconomics